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Chapter IV Land Use Policies, Capital City District (Urban) INTRODUCTION This chapter contains the descriptions and development policies pertaining to each of the land uses proposed for the city and rural areas of the Capital City District (Urban). The description outlines the specific types of uses and facilities which should be developed in each land use area. The policies establish how the Capital Development Authority should ensure the development in each land use area, so that the proposals and general intent of this Master Plan will be achieved. RESIDENTIAL — COMMUNITIES AND NEIGHBOURHOODS Description The residential component of the city is arranged in a series of residential communities, except in and immediately adjacent to the existing town of Dodoma, and on the north slope of Itega, south of the industrial area. Each such community consists of four neighbourhoods, surrounding a community centre. In the area immediately surrounding the existing town, it will not be possible to create prototypical residential communities, but the residential land in this area should nevertheless be developed in accordance with the neighbourhood principles outlined below All residential land shown on the Future Land Use Plan should be developed in the form of neighbourhoods. Each neighbourhood should include all types of housing, ranging from detached dwellings to flats, or apartment buildings, so that all income and social groups of the population can be accommodated. Every neighbourhood should also contain primary schools and nurseries; shambas, parks, playgrounds and other recreational facilities; libraries, religious and other community buildings; small shops and similar uses serving purely local needs. Arterial and major collector roads and the busway route should not pass through a neighbourhood, but should instead define its boundaries, together with major open space areas. Each neighbourhood should have a minor collector road, which connects with the peripheral major collector. Local neighbourhood streets and cul-de-sacs, leading from the minor collector, should provide access to the residential plots. The neighbourhood should contain an extensive system of walkways and bicycle ways leading from each group of dwellings to the public neighbourhood facilities and the community centre. Policies Neighbourhoods should be designed to accommodate an average of 7,000 residents. Wherever feasible, four neighbourhoods should be grouped around a C Centre creating a residential community of 28,000 inhabitants. The radius of the total community should be about 1 km, so that the maximum walking distance from any dwelling to the community centre does not exceed about 10 minutes. The residential communities should be so designed and have such facilities and amenities that they function as a large village or small town. It must be an environment with a human scale and character with which its inhabitants can identify themselves, in which they feel they belong. The houses and housing groups, the neighbourhood school, the shops and the community centre should be reminiscent of the traditional Tanzanian villages and should not take on the characteristics of a big, impersonal city. When one walks through the neighbourhood, one should have the feeling of passing through a series of smaller and larger spaces, defined by houses and landscaping. One should get frequent glimpses of the open spaces outside the community and one should feel that the rural land is always close by. The walker should also frequently be able to see the prominent landscape features in and around the city; the remarkable inselbergs, the hills and the great plains. The walkways and the streets should be so oriented that one will obtain these views between the buildings and trees. 43

Housing The net density of each neighbourhood should be about 30 dwelling units per hectare. This, however, is an average and the actual density in the different parts of the neighbourhood may range from 5 to 60 dwelling units per hectare. About 80% of all dwellings in each neighbourhood should consist of 1 or 2 storey buildings, most of which should be in the form of detached, semidetached or rowhousing units. The flats or apartment buildings should generally not exceed 3 storeys and should be located near the community centre. All plots occupied by dwellings should either front directly onto a street or on a public walkway. Where they front on a walkway, they should nevertheless be located close enough to a street to be readily accessible to emergency and maintenance vehicles and the residents' private cars. The dwellings should be set back sufficiently from adjacent streets, walkways and other public areas, to ensure privacy and to provide land for FIGURE 6 EXAMPLE OF PROPOSED HOUSE GROUP landscaping adjacent to the building. Each dwelling should also have an open area on its own plot for the family's private outdoor use. All dwellings should be connected to the city's piped water supply and sewerage systems. They should also be located to ensure adequate drainage of rain water away from the building, towards the neighbourhood's drainage system, without discharging onto a neighbour's plot. Dwellings should be grouped together in accordance with the TANU cell principle, so that about 10 units surround a small open area where social interaction can take place. Each such open area should contain at least one tree. The garden of each dwelling should also be provided with at least one tree. And the buildings should be located and oriented, so as to ensure climatic protection and ventilation, reasonable privacy and so that an attractive as well as a functional residential environment will be created. Housing in the existing town of Dodoma and its expansion areas should be developed in accordance with the same policies outlined above. However, three areas are specifically proposed for apartment-type buildings: — the area to the east of the central industrial park, immediately to the north-west of the relocated railway station and bus terminal; and

— the areas on the east and west sides of the proposed Commemorative Park, to the south and west of the A Centre. Schools and Open Space Each neighbourhood should contain three primary school sites, together with nursery facilities. One of these sites should function as a Community Education Centre, with sufficient land set aside for the school and nursery, as well as ar assembly hall, a clinic, a library, a TANU branch office, a small workshop and sports club. Each of the school sites should also include a sports and play area, shambas and a sitting/study area. The neighbourhood's school sites, recreational open space, shambas and walkways should be designed as a comprehensive system, in which 44

each component is linked with all the others. Children should be able to walk from their homes to school and adults to the community centre, through safe and pleasantly landscaped open areas. Neighbourhood Shops Small shops or dukas should be located in the neighbourhoods for the convenience of their residents. One such site should be allocated for about every 70 dwelling units. They should generally be located on a street, and should also be directly accessible via the walkway system. Neighbourhood Roads and Bicycle Ways The design of the city in general, and of the neighbourhoods in particular, should be such that private automobiles are quite unnecessary, because the alternative means of movement will be entirely convenient, attractive and economical. This should result in a residential environment which is essentially free from the hazards, costs, noise and air pollution, and undesirable visual characteristics, which are so common in cities where the car has become a dominant intrusion in every aspect of people's life. Each neighbourhood should, however, contain a comprehensive road system to accommodate service and maintenance vehicles, as well as the cars of those residents who still prefer to use them. All through-traffic major collector and arterial roads should be kept strictly on the periphery of the neighbourhood. Each neighbourhood should have a single, looped minor collector street (25 m right-of-way), with the primary function of bringing vehicles to the different sectors of the neighbourhood. From this collector, residential loop streets and cul-de-sacs (minimum 12.5 m right-of-way) should provide access to the plots and blocks. Utilities and Street Furniture All parts of the neighbourhood should be provided with electricity, street lights and street signs. While these should be of economical construction, they should be designed and located with care to minimize their adverse visual effect on the environment. If the residents should not have their own appropriate receptacles for household and other refuse, public receptacles should be provided. These should be located at frequent intervals along the streets, suitably screened from view by fences and/or vegetation, to be emptied into the city's refuse collection trucks. KIKUYU — AN EXAMPLE RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY The principles and policies recommended for new residential communities are exemplified in the plan for the proposed new community of Kikuyu (Plate 11), which is located south of Itega and west of Imagi, and borders the existing village of the same name. The site has the general shape of a shallow bowl with its upper, or south-west boundary defined by a range of low hills. It slopes gently downwards towards the north-east where it opens up to provide fine views of Mlimwa. Dry creek and river beds, the largest of which is the Kikuyu River, traverse the site in various directions. These features are defined by the relatively large number of mango and acacia trees, which line their banks. The remainder of the site is sparsely covered with scrub and bush vegetation. Existing man-made features on the site include a Centre of National Education (Mazengo School), with ancillary residential and sports areas, a number of new two and three storey apartment buildings and a new primary school. There are also some existing houses scattered about the site and the main road to Iringa bisects it from north to south. These features have been incorporated into the design of the new community, with the exception of some mud and wattle houses, and short sections of the Iringa road. The new Kikuyu community has been designed on the basis of the neighbourhood policies and criteria presented above. The right-of-way for the busway incorporates sections of the Iringa road and bisects the site from north to south. East-west access is provided by a major collector road, which runs from the relocated Iringa Road into the community and loops around the proposed community centre which incorporates the existing National Boarding School. The busway and collector routes divide the site into four approximately equal quadrants, or 45

neighbourhoods, which cover an average of 69.5 hectares each. Each neighbourhood is served by a minor collector road which leads to the major collector around the community centre. Three primary schools are located in each neighbourhood. The dry creek and river beds have all been incorporated into the open space system and each is bordered by a walkway and a bicycle way The walkways/bicycle ways and open space systems are designed to interconnect all houses with the primary schools and the community centre. An interesting feature of the Kikuyu plan is shown at the intersection of the busway and the Kikuyu river. The topography at this point is such that it lends itself to a natural grade separation between the busway, and the pedestrian and bicycle ways which parallel the river, so that these paths cross below the busway. Following is a summary of the statistical information related to the plan for Kikuyu Community Total Area 316 ha Total Population 28,000 persons Gross Density 88.6 persons/ha Community Centre 38 ha Average Neighbourhood 69.5 ha Neighbourhood Dwelling Units 1,400 Population 7,000 Roads (11.7%) 8ha Parking ( 4.3%) 3 ha School, neighbourhood centre, walkway system, playfield, etc. (20%) 14 ha Open Space Cells (13%) 9 ha Net Residential Land (51%) 35.5 ha Breakdown of Residential Types Apartments (20%) 60 units/ha Row Housing (30%) 40 units/ha Row Housing (40%) 30 units/ha Semi-Detached ( 5%) 20 units/ha Detached ( 5%) 10 units/ha PRESIDENTIAL/VICE PRESIDENTIAL SITES The Future Land Use Plan, 350,000 Population shows seven alternative sites for the residences of the President and Vice President of Tanzania, as well as for state villas for visiting Heads of State. All these sites are at relatively high elevations to present views over the city and country and they are located in a pleasant, relatively secluded natural environment. Land areas of from 5 to 10 ha should be reserved in these locations for this purpose. SPECIAL DIPLOMATIC USES Description The move of the Capital to Dodoma will result in the need for sites to be reserved for chancelleries, diplomatic residences, embassies and related foreign mission uses. There are several approaches that can be followed with regard to the locations of these important facilities in the Capital and it is recommended that specific policies regarding their location and development should be established by the Capital Development Authority during the first five years of development, in consultation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. On the Future Land Use Plan three areas are designated for Special Diplomatic Uses. One site is adjacent to the Processional Way and close to the proposed High Court, where the presence of imposing buildings would be advantageous. A second site is close to the National Capital Centre, and a third is located on rising ground at the foothills of Mlimwa. It is assumed that some 100 foreign missions will eventually be located in the Capital City. Policies Generally, the policies with regard to Special Diplomatic Use areas are: Chancelleries, diplomatic residences, embassies and related uses should be encouraged to locate in Special Diplomatic Use Areas, but need not necessarily be restricted thereto. Notwithstanding the above, diplomatic areas should not be located close to the university or other educational institutions, and should 46

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